The sword and a small shield, called a buckler, was a popular weapon set throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, both for armoured and unarmoured combat, in war as well as in single combat. At least in some parts of Germany, sword and buckler appear to have been the traditional arms for judicial duel up until at least 1350. In some cases, such fights could be carried out by professionals, so called kempen (champions). Buckler fighting was also widely practiced as a sport by commoners and noblemen alike. According schools existed at least since the late 1100s.